Tuesday, 9 September 2008

Nmap 4.75 Released!

Nmap 4.75 has almost 100 significant improvements since 4.68. Some of these improvements are:

o While Nmap stands for "Network Mapper", it hasn't been able to actually draw you a map of the network--until now! Visit http://nmap.org/book/zenmap-topology.html for details and pretty pictures of Zenmap's new Scan Topology system.

o I spent much of this summer scanning tens of millions of IPs on the Internet (plus collecting data contributed by some enterprises) to determine the most commonly open ports. Nmap now uses that empirical data to scan more effectively.

And there is much more, from hundreds of new OS detection fingerprints to many new Nmap Scripting Engine scripts and libraries. I had no idea how many people still used Windows 2000 until 4.68 came out broken on that platform and I was flooded with email! That is fixed now. And its just one of many bug fixes and performance improvements in this release. Remember that we had 7 Google SoC students working full-time this summer, and this release includes some of their best work.

You can Download Nmap 4.75 from h3r3 : http://nmap.org/download.html

Please give it a try! And if you encounter any problems, report them
to nmap-dev as described at http://nmap.org/book/man-bugs.html

Here is the detailed list of important 4.75 changes from http://nmap.org/changelog.html:

o [Zenmap] Added a new Scan Topology system. The idea is that if we are going to call Nmap the "Network Mapper", it should at least be able to draw you a map of the network! And that is what this new system does. It was achieved by integrating the RadialNet Nmap visualization tool (http://www.dca.ufrn.br/~joaomedeiros/radialnet), into Zenmap. Joao Medeiros has been developing RadialNet for more than a year. For details, complete with some of the most beautiful Zenmap screen shots ever, visit
http://nmap.org/book/zenmap-topology.html. The integration work was done by SoC student Vladimir Mitrovic and his mentor David Fifield.

o [Zenmap] Another exciting new Zenmap feature is Scan Aggregation. This allows you to visualize and analyze the results of multiple scans at once, as if they were from one Nmap execution. So you might scan one network, analyze the results a bit, then scan some of the machines more intensely or add a completely new subnet to the scan. The new results are seamlessly added to the old, as described at http://nmap.org/book/zenmap-scanning.html#aggregation. [David, Vladimir]

o Expanded nmap-services to include information on how frequently each port number is found open. The results were generated by scanning tens of millions of IPs on the Internet this Summer, and augmented with internal network data contributed by some large
organizations. [Fyodor]

o Nmap now scans the most common 1,000 ports by default in either protocol (UDP scan is still optional). This is a decrease from 1,715 TCP ports and 1,488 UDP ports in Nmap 4.68. So Nmap is faster by default and, since the port selection is better thanks to the
port frequency data, it often finds more open ports as well. [Fyodor]

o Nmap fast scan (-F) now scans the top 100 ports by default in either protocol. This is a decrease from 1,276 (TCP) and 1,017 (UDP) in Nmap 4.68. Port scanning time with -F is generally an order of magnitude faster than before, making -F worthy of its "fast scan"
moniker. [Fyodor]

o The --top-ports option lets you specify the number of ports you wish to scan in each protocol, and will pick the most popular ports for you based on the new frequency data. For both TCP and UDP, the top 10 ports gets you roughly half of the open ports. The top 1,000 (out of 65,536 possible) finds roughly 93% of the open TCP ports and more than 95% of the open UDP ports. [Fyodor, Doug Hoyte]

o David integrated all of your OS detection fingerprint and correction submissions from March 11 until mid-July. In the process we reached the 1500-signature milestone for the 2nd generation OS detection system. We can now detect the newest iPhones, Linux 2.6.25, OS X Darwin 9.2.2, Windows Vista SP1, and even the Nintendo Wii. Nmap now has 1,503 signatures, vs. 1,320 in 4.68. Integration is now faster and more pleasant thanks to the new OSassist application developed by Nmap SoC student Michael Pattrick. See http://seclists.org/nmap-dev/2008/q3/0089.html and http://seclists.org/nmap-dev/2008/q3/0139.html for more details.

o Nmap now works with Windows 2000 again, after being broken by our IPv6 support improvements in version 4.65. A couple new dependencies are required to run on Win2K, as described at http://nmap.org/book/inst-windows.html#inst-win2k .

o [Zenmap] Added a context-sensitive help system to the Profile Editor. You can now mouse-over options to learn more about what they are used for and their proper argument syntax. [Jurand Nogiec]

o When Nmap finds a probe during ping scan which elicits a response, it now saves that information for the port scan and later phases. It can then "ping" the host with that probe as necessary to collect timing information even if the host is not responding to the normal
port scan packets. Previously, Nmap's port scan timing pings could only use information gathered during that port scan itself. A number of other "port scan ping" system improvements were made at the same time to improve performance against firewalled hosts. For
full details, see http://seclists.org/nmap-dev/2008/q3/0647.html
[David, Michael, Fyodor]

o --traceroute now uses the timing ping probe saved from host discovery and port scanning instead of finding its own probe. The timing ping probe is always the best probe Nmap knows about for eliciting a response from a target. This will have the most effect on traceroute after a ping scan, where traceroute would sometimes pick an ineffective probe and traceroute would fail even though the target was up. [David]

o Added dns-safe-recursion-port and dns-safe-recursion-txid (non-default NSE scripts) which use the 3rd party dns-oarc.net lookup to test the source port and transaction ID randomness of
discovered DNS servers (assuming they allow recursion at all). These scripts, which test for the "Kaminsky" DNS bugs, were contributed by Brandon Enright.

o Added whois.nse, which queries the Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) to determine who the target IP addresses are assigned to. [Jah]

o [Zenmap] Overhauled the default list of scan profiles based on nmap-dev discussion. Users now have a much more diverse and useful set of default profile options. And if they don't like any of those canned scan commands, they can easily create their own in the Profile Editor! [David]

o Fyodor made a number of performance tweaks, such as:
o increase host group sizes in many cases, so Nmap will now commonly scan 64 hosts at a time rather than 30
o align host groups with common network boundaries, such as /24 or /25
o Increase maximum per-target port-scan ping frequency to one every 1.25 seconds rather than every five. Port scan pings happen against heavily firewalled hosts and the like when Nmap is not receiving enough responses to normal scan to properly calculate timing variables and detect packet drops.

o Added a new NSE binlib library, which offers bin.pack() and bin.unpack() functions for dealing with storing values in and extracting them from binary strings. For details, see http://nmap.org/book/nse-library.html#nse-binlib . [Philip Pickering]

o Added a new NSE DNS library. See this thread:
http://seclists.org/nmap-dev/2008/q3/0310.html [Philip Pickering]

o Added new NSE libraries for base64 encoding, SNMP, and POP3 mail operations. They are described at http://seclists.org/nmap-dev/2008/q3/0233.html . [Philip Pickering]

o Added NSE scripts popcapa (retrieves POP3 server capabilities) and brutePOP3 (brute force POP3 authentication cracker) which make use of the new POP3 library. [Philip Pickering]

o Added the SNMPcommunitybrute NSE script, which is a brute force community string cracker. Also modified SNMPsysdescr to use the new SNMP library. [Philip Pickering]

o Fixed the SMTPcommands script so that it can't return multiple values (which was causing problems). Thanks to Jah for tracking down the problem and sending a fix for SMTPcommands. Then Patrick fixed NSE so it can handle misbehaving scripts like this without causing mysterious side effects.

o Added a new NSE Unpwdb (username/password database) library for easily obtaining usernames or passwords from a list. The functions usernames() and passwords() return a closure which returns a new list entry with every call, or nil when the list is exhausted. You can specify your own username and/or password lists via the script arguments userdb and passdb, respectively. [Kris]

o Nmap's Nsock-utilizing subsystems (DNS, NSE, version detection) have been updated to support the -S and --ip-options flags. [Kris]

o A new --max-rate option was added, which complements --min-rate. It allows you to specify the maximum byte rate that Nmap is allowed to send packets. [David]

o Added --ip-options support for the connect() scan (-sT). [Kris]

o Nsock now supports binding to a local address and setting IPv4 options with nsi_set_localaddr() and nsi_set_ipoptions(), respectively. [Kris]

o Added IPProto Ping (-PO) support to Traceroute, and fixed support for IPProto Scan (-sO) and the ICMP Pings (-PE, -PP, -PM) in Traceroute as well. These could cause Nmap to hang during Traceroute. [Kris]

o [Zenmap] Added a "Cancel" button for cancelling a scan in progress without losing any Nmap output obtained so far. [Jurand Nogiec]

o Improve the netbios-smb-os-discovery NSE script to improve target port selection and to also decode the system's timestamp from an SMB response. [Ron at SkullSecurity]

o Nmap now avoids collapsing large numbers of ports in open|filtered state (e.g. just printing that 500 ports are in that state rather than listing them individually) if verbosity or debugging levels are
greater than two. See this thread: http://seclists.org/nmap-dev/2008/q3/0312.html . [Fyodor]

o The NSE http library now supports chunked encoding. [Sven Klemm]

o The NSE datafiles library now has generic file parsing routines, and the parsing of the standard nmap data files (e.g. nmap-services, nmap-protocols, etc.) now uses those generic routines. NSE scripts and libraries may find them useful for dealing with their own data
files, such as password lists. [Jah]

o Passed the big revision 10,000 milestone in the Nmap project SVN server: http://seclists.org/nmap-dev/2008/q3/0682.html

o Added some Windows and MinGW compatibility patches submitted by Gisle Vanem.

o Improved nse_init so that compilation/runtime errors in NSE scripts no longer cause the script engine to abort. [Patrick]

o Fix a cosmetic bug in --script-trace hex dump output which resulting in bytes with the highest bit set being prefixed with ffffff. [Sven Klemm]

o Removed the nselib-bin directory. The last remaining shared NSE module, bit, has been made static by Patrick. Shared modules were broken for static builds of Nmap, such as those in the RPMS. We also had the compilation problems (particularly on OpenBSD) with shared modules which lead us to make PCRE static a while back. [David]

o Updated rpcinfo NSE script to use the new pack/unpack (binlib) functions, use the new tab library, include better documentation, and fix some bugs. [Sven Klemm]

o Add useful details to the error message printed when an NSE script fails to load (due to syntax error, etc.) [Patrick]

o Fix a bug in the NSE http library which would cause some scripts to give the error: SCRIPT ENGINE: C:\Program Files\Nmap\nselib/http.lua:77: attempt to call field 'parse' (a nil value) [Jah]

o Fixed a Makefile problem (race condition) which could lead to build failures when launching make in parallel mode (e.g. -j4). [Michal Januszewski]

o Added new addrow() function to NSE tab library. It allows developers to add a whole row at once rather than doing a separate add() call for each column in a row. [Sven Klemm]

o Completion time estimates provided in verbose mode or when you hit a key during scanning are now more accurate thanks to algorithm improvements by David.

o Fixed a number of NSE scripts which used print_debug() incorrectly. See
http://seclists.org/nmap-dev/2008/q3/0470.html. [Sven Klemm].

o [Zenmap] The Ports/Hosts view now provides full version detection values rather than just a simple summary. [Jurand Nogiec]

o [Zenmap] When you edit the command-entry field, then change the target selection, Nmap no longer blows away your edits in favor of using your current profile. [Jurand Nogiec]

o Nsock now returns data from UDP packets individually, preserving the packet boundary, rather than concatenating the data from multiple packets into a single buffer. This fixes a problem related to our reverse-DNS system, which can only handle one DNS packet at a time.
Thanks to Tim Adam of ManageSoft for debugging the problem and sending the patch. Doug Hoyte helped with testing, and it was applied by Fyodor.

o [Zenmap] Fixed a crash which would occur when you try to compare two files, either of which has more than one extraports element. [David]

o Added the undocumented (except here) --nogcc option which disables global/group congestion control algorithms and so each member of a scan group of machines is treated separately. This is just an experimental option for now. [Fyodor]

o [Zenmap] The Ports/Hosts display now has different colors for open and closed ports. [Vladimir]

o Fixed Zenmap so that it displays all Nmap errors. Previously, only stdout was redirected into the window, and not stderr. Now they are both redirected. [Vladimir]

o NSE can now be used in combination with ping scan (e.g. "-sP --script") so that you can execute host scripts without needing to perform a port scan. [Kris]

o [NSE] Category names are now case insensitive. [Patrick]

o [NSE] Each thread for a script now gets its own action closure (and upvalues). See: http://seclists.org/nmap-dev/2008/q2/0549.html [Patrick]

o [NSE] The script_scan_result structure has been changed to a class, ScriptResult, which now holds a Script's output in an std::string. This removes the need to use malloc and free to manage this memory.
A similar change was made to the run_record structure. [Patrick]

o [NSE] Fixed a socket exhaustion deadlock which could prevent a script scan from ever finishing. Now, rather than limit the total number of sockets which can be open, we limit the number of scripts which can have sockets open at once. And once a script has one socket opened, it is permitted to open as many more as it needs. [Patrick]

o A hashing library (code from OpenSSL) was added to NSE. hashlib contains md5 and sha1 routines. [Philip Pickering]

o Fixed host discovery probe matching when looking at the returned TCP data in an ICMP error message. This could formerly lead to incorrectly discarded responses and the debugging error message: "Bogus trynum or sequence number in ICMP error message" [Kris]

o Fixed a segmentation fault in Nsock which occurred when calling nsock_write() with a data length of -1 (which means the data is a NUL-terminated string and Nsock should take the length itself) and the Nsock trace level was at least 2. [Kris]

o The NSE Comm library now defaults to trying to read as many bytes as are available rather than lines if neither the "bytes" nor "lines" options are given. Thanks to Brandon for reporting a problem which he noticed in the dns-test-open-recursion script. [Kris]

o Updated zoneTrans.nse to replace length bytes in returned domain names to periods itself rather than relying on NSE's old behavior of replacing non-printable characters with periods. Thanks to Rob Nicholls for reporting the problem. [Kris]

o Some Zenmap crashes have been fixed: trying to "refresh" the output of a scan loaded from a file, and trying to re-save a file loaded from the command line in some circumstances. [David]

o [Zenmap] The file selector now remembers what directory it was last looking at. [David]

o Added an extra layer of validity checking to received packets (readip_pcap), just to be extra safe. See
http://seclists.org/nmap-dev/2008/q3/0644.html . [Kris]

o Zenmap defaults to showing files matching both *.xml and *.usr in the file selector. Previously it only showed those matching *.usr. The new combined format will be XML and .usr will be deprecated.
See http://seclists.org/nmap-dev/2008/q3/0093.html .

o Nmap avoids printing the sending rate in bytes per second during a TCP connect scan. Because the number of bytes per probe is not known, it used to print current sending rates: 11248.85 packets / s, 0.00 bytes / s. Now it will print simply print rates like "11248.85 packets / s". [David]

o [Zenmap] Nmap's installation process now include .desktop files which install menu items for launching Zenmap as a privileged or non-privileged process on Linux. This will mainly effect people who install nmap and Zenmap directly from the source code. [Michael]

o Improved performance of IP protocol scan by fixing a bug related to timing calculations on ICMP probe responses. See r8754 svn log for full details. [David]

o Nmap --reason output no longer falsely reports a localhost-response during -PN scans. See
http://seclists.org/nmap-dev/2008/q3/0188.html. [Michael]

o [Zenmap] The higwidgets Python package has moved so it is now a subpackage of zenmapGUI. This avoids naming conflicts with Umit, which uses a slightly different version of higwidgets. [David]

o A bug that could cause some host discovery probes to be incorrectly interpreted as drops was fixed. This occurred only when the IP protocol ping (-PO) option was combined with other ping
types. [David]

o A new scanflags attribute has been added to XML output, which lists all user specified --scanflags for the scan. nmap.dtd has been modified to account for this. [Michael]

o The loading of the nmap-services file has been made much faster--roughly 9 times faster in common cases. This is important for the new (much larger) frequency augmented map-services
file. [David]

o Added a script (ASN.nse) which uses Team Cymru's DNS interface to determine the routing AS numbers of scanned IP addresses. They even set up a special domain just for Nmap queries. The script is still experimental and non-default. [Jah, Michael]

o [Zenmap] Clicking "Cancel" in a file chooser in the diff interface no longer causes a crash. [David]

o The shtool build helper script has been updated to version 2.0.8. An older version of shutil caused installation to fail when the locale was set to et_EE. Thanks to Michal Januszewski for the bug report. [David]

o [Zenmap] Removed services.dmp and os_dmp.dmp and all the files that referred to them. They are not needed with the new search interface. Also removed an unused search progress bar. And some broken fingerprint submission code. Yay for de-bloating! [David]

o [Zenmap] Added "%F" to the Exec link in the new Zenmap desktop file. We expect (hope) that this will allow dragging and dropping XML files onto the icon. [David]

o [Zenmap] The -o[XGASN] options can now be specified, just as you can at the console. [Vladimir]

o [Zenmap] You can now shrink the scan window below its default size thanks to map OutputViewer code enhancements. [David]

o [Zenmap] Removed optional use of the Psyco Python optimizer since Zenmap is not the kind of CPU-bound application which benefits from Psyco.

o [Zenmap] You can now select more than one host in the "Ports / Hosts" view by control-clicking them in the column at left.

o [Zenmap] The profile editor now offers the --traceroute option.

o Zenmap now uses Unicode objects pervasively when dealing with Nmap text output, though the only internationalized text Nmap currently outputs is the user's time zone. [David]

o Unprintable characters in NSE script output (which really shouldn't happen anyway) are now printed like \xHH, where HH is the hexadecimal representation of the character. See
http://seclists.org/nmap-dev/2008/q3/0180.html . [Patrick]

o Nmap sometimes sent packets with incorrect IP checksums, particularly when sending the UDP probes in OS detection. This has been fixed. Thanks to Gisle Vanem for reporting and investigating the bug. [David]

o Fixed the --without-liblua configure option so that it works again. [David]

o In the interest of forward compatibility, the xmloutputversion attribute in Nmap XML output is no longer constrained to be a certain string ("1.02"). The xmloutputversion should be taken as
merely advisory by authors of parsers.

o Zenmap no longer leaves any temporary files lying around. [David]

o Nmap only prints an uptime guess in verbose mode now, because in some situations it can be very inaccurate. See the discussion at http://seclists.org/nmap-dev/2008/q3/0392.html. [David]

The reference of this post if mail news from Nmap.

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